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Types of fabricated architecture
Release time:2017-5-26 18:40:06      Click on the number of times:1410

A prefabricated building is a building assembled from prefabricated parts at a site. The advantage of this kind of building is that it is fast in construction, limited by climatic conditions, saving labor force and improving building quality.

Fabricated architecture began to attract interest in the early twentieth Century and was finally achieved by 60s. Britain, France, the Soviet Union and other countries first made an attempt. Because of the fast construction speed and low production cost, the assembly type building is rapidly spreading all over the world.

Early prefabricated buildings were more rigid and stereotyped. Later, people made improvements in design, increased flexibility and diversity, so that prefabricated buildings can not only be built in batches, but also rich in style. The United States has a housing activities, is building more advanced, each apartment is like a large trailer, as long as the use of special car to pull it to the site, connecting channel, power supply, telephone system by crane to the floor pad and embedded, you can use. The interior has heating, bathroom, kitchen, dining room, bedroom and other facilities. Movable houses can be made up of one unit and one another.

The characteristics of an assembly building:

1. a large number of building components, such as wall panels, interior panels, laminated, balcony, air conditioning board, stairs, precast beams, prefabricated columns are completed by the workshop production and processing, centralized production greatly reduces the cost of the project, but also more conducive to quality control.

2. the construction parts produced by the factory were transported to the site for assembly, which reduced the formwork work and manual work, and accelerated the construction speed, which is of great significance for reducing the project cost.

3. assembly construction transforms the whole building from one project into one. The more standard the component is, the higher the production efficiency is, the lower the cost is. With the digital management of the factory, the price of the whole assembly type building is far from the traditional construction method.

4. different from traditional architecture that must first finish the subject to decoration, building decoration parts can be prefabricated components after the completion of the assembly, to achieve synchronization of decoration works with the main part of the project, reduce the construction process, reduce the engineering cost.

5. the choice of building materials for assembly type building is more flexible, and the application of various energy saving and environmental protection materials, such as light steel and wood panels, makes assembly building more in line with the concept of green building.

Types of fabricated architecture:

Block construction

A prefabricated building made of prefabricated blocks of material, suitable for the construction of 3~5 stories. Of course, if the strength of the block is increased or the reinforcement is added, the number of plies may be increased, but only the low storey building can be used. But it has the advantages of simple production process, simple construction, low cost, and the use of local materials and industrial waste. It is the first choice for small self building!

Sheet construction

It is made of prefabricated large internal and external wall panels, floors and roof panels and other panels, also known as large building. It can effectively reduce structural weight, improve labor productivity, expand the use area and shockproof function of buildings, and is the main type of assembly type buildings.

The wall is divided into load-bearing wall panels and decorative wall panels, bearing wallboard for reinforced concrete plate, such as wall decoration wallboard plate with reinforced concrete composite insulation layer, and the wall steel wood special thermal insulation composite board with exterior decoration. All kinds of plate lifting kit can be completed bearing, construction speed, construction prices low!

Box architecture

It is an assembly type building developed on the basis of plate construction. The biggest characteristic is that all the room units or small bays, kitchens, toilets or staircases are made into load-bearing boxes, and then they are made up of wall panels and floors. The factory building of higher degree, on-site installation faster, not only can complete the structure part of the box in the factory, and interior decoration and equipment also can do, even furniture, carpet can be completed on-site hoisting, connect the pipeline can be used!

There is even a prefabricated building called the movable house, each residential unit as it is a large trailer, as long as the use of special car to pull it to the scene, and then by crane to the floor pad and pre buried channel, power supply, telephone system is connected, and you can use! Internal heating, bathroom, kitchen, dining room, bedroom and other facilities, it can only become a house, also can be connected to each other as a whole house!

Skeleton plate building

It consists of prefabricated frames and plates. The bearing structure generally has two forms, one is from the column, beam bearing frame, and then use the floor frame structure and non bearing wall; the other is a pillar and floor slab column structure system composed of load-bearing wall, is a non load bearing member. The bearing frame can be reinforced concrete structure, steel structure, heavy weight, internal division and flexible, suitable for multi-storey and high-rise buildings.

Lifting plate and storey building

The building structure system is combined by the bearing plate and the column, it is at the bottom of the concrete ground floors and repeated pouring roof panel, erection of precast reinforced concrete columns, column for guide rod, lifting floor and roof panel to the design height, and then to be fixed. As for the inside and outside walls, concrete can be poured, masonry walls can also be installed, and other light curtain walls can be installed. It will be a lot of cast-in-place process moved to the ground, reducing the high-altitude operations and vertical transportation, saving formwork and scaffolding engineering, and reduce the construction site area, very suitable for the construction site construction limited, as shopping malls, warehouse, workshop and multi-layer garage.

The use of modular architecture leads to the development of modular architecture in the United States, Canada, Japan and some European countries. From the early twentieth Century, some North American countries, such as the United States and Canada, began to study and apply the prefabricated building, and established the Precast / Prestressed Concrete Association (PCI) to study and popularize the assembly building for a long time. After that, the Association introduced a number of specifications and standards for prefabricated buildings, which further promoted the development of modular architecture and became more widely used. In the large area of engineering practice, the assembly type building has given full play to its advantages, and reflects the advantages of good quality, high efficiency, economy and durability.

The construction of fabricated buildings in Japan has reached an extremely high level in the world, and the relevant standards and specifications for the construction of fabricated buildings in Japan are also well established. Japan in the development and application of assembly building, the prefabricated construction applied to the quake zone, high-rise and super high-rise buildings, in some unexpected earthquake, building its full seismic advantage, to ensure the safety of people's life, more attention is paid to.

Europe is the birthplace of modular architecture, dating back to seventeenth Century. European countries for assembling building awareness started earlier, through the development of science and technology innovation constantly, the construction method is also a perfect idea, accumulated rich experience, and developed a series of prefabricated construction engineering standards and application manual, has an important role in promoting the construction of assembly the development of.

In our country, people began to understand and understand the assembly type building from 1950s. At the beginning of 60s, people began to study the construction method of assembly type building, and formed a new building system. Through the continuous development of science and technology, until 1980s, the development of assembly building in our country can reach its peak. But because the prefabricated construction has limitations and shortcomings in our country at the design level and construction level is limited, the development needs, not assembling building until 1990s, assembling building is a large area of the popularity of the real application in China, but is still has limitations in the construction management of building design, and lead to prefabricated construction application in the development of our country is relatively slow.

Concluding remarks

With the development of modern industrial technology, to build houses that could be produced as the machine, batch set manufacturing! The building components prefabricated, transported to the site for site assembly, that is, assembling building! Than traditional construction methods, the construction speed and construction of high quality and low cost, is the development trend of the new generation of city building.

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